Some characteristics of the hottest papermaking si

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Some characteristics of China's papermaking situation and Countermeasures (I)

1. China is lack of forest resources and papermaking raw materials

China has a population of 1.2 billion and uses a large amount of paper. Since the 1990s, with the rapid development of economy, the amount of paper used has increased day by day

according to statistics, China's paper consumption in 1980 was 6.2 million tons, with a per capita consumption of 6.29kg; In 1998, it increased to 32.69 million tons, 26.5 kg per capita. The maintenance of this soaring consumption mainly depends on imports. Therefore, China imports paper from abroad every year, consuming a large amount of foreign exchange funds. In 1993, 1.6 billion US dollars were used to buy paper, 2.5 billion US dollars in 1994 and 4.8 billion US dollars in 1996. In 1998, floods soared, natural forest logging was banned, and the cost of imported paper and wood reached 11.7 billion US dollars, equivalent to 97 billion yuan

the huge amount of money of 100 billion yuan was spent on buying paper, which is equivalent to the investment in the construction of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River. The construction of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River was started after half a century of preparation, and one year of buying paper in China is equivalent to building a Three Gorges of the Yangtze River. This amazing cost is unbearable. In view of this, the State Council has repeatedly studied ways to get rid of this heavy burden, hoping that forestry, like steel and oil extraction, will spend several years fighting a turnaround and achieve self-reliance

however, it is not easy to talk about, because wood production does not have ready-made reserves like mining and oil extraction, as long as it is dug underground. Wood is a product of photosynthesis, and its carrier depends on forests that have been continuous for decades. China lacks sufficient forests, and the forest coverage rate is only 13%. During the rainy season, when water rises and rivers flood, the existing forests are too few to play the role of ecological barrier and water and soil conservation, let alone be used for papermaking

this is China's national conditions: lack of forest resources, no paper raw materials, had to import, the cost is amazing

2. There are many paper mills, most of which are grass mills, with serious pollution

China has a large paper consumption, which was 32.69 million tons in 1998, making it the third largest paper consumption country in the world. It costs 26.5kg per capita, which is only half of the world's per capita paper consumption of 53 kg. Moreover, among the 32.69 million tons of paper, it is mainly not made of wood pulp, and the proportion of wood pulp is very small, less than 10%. More than 50% of the ingredients are made of non wood pulp raw materials such as straw and wheat straw. Such raw materials are easy to process, but the papermaking wastewater is difficult to treat, so it has to be discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, causing great harm to the ecological environment

because straw pulp mills use straw as pulp, it is easy to obtain materials, the equipment is simple, and it can be launched without huge funds. Therefore, small straw pulp mills are densely scattered in China. In 90 years, there were 5360, 97 to more than 20000, and they are the heroes of papermaking in China. Because China's paper consumption accounts for 65%, its position as the third largest paper consumption country in the world is supported by them. If it were not for them, the consumption of imported paper in China would be greater

however, from the perspective of environmental pollution, they can't escape. They set up factories everywhere, 95% of which are still below 10000 tons. There are many paper mills, which are seriously polluted, and the green water and green mountains are all polluted by the black smoke and black liquid they emit. The State Council recently ordered the closure of grass plants with a capacity of less than 5000 tons, which is certainly a wise move. However, more than half of the paper consumption is dependent, and how to arrange the layoffs of hundreds of thousands of workers is another difficult problem. It's really difficult to have a two pronged solution to the dilemma of non wood paper. This is probably another feature of China's papermaking situation

3. Forestry, forestry and papermaking. The combination of forestry and papermaking in China has passed through

in order to solve the problem of papermaking, the state has issued some policies. In the 1950s, the policy of papermaking in China was to follow the example of mining and oil extraction. The geological department explored the mineral resources to find out the raw materials, and then handed them over to the special department for mining. Indeed, the Ministry of oil took out oil in the 1960s; In the 1970s, the Ministry of metallurgy produced steel, and in the 1990s, China made 100 million tons of steel. In the same model, afforestation and papermaking were first put forward. It means that the Ministry of forestry will take out the wood for afforestation and hand it over to the Ministry of light industry to make paper

however, due to the slow growth of trees and the long afforestation cycle, the Ministry of light industry, which has been waiting for 10 or 20 years, still has no raw materials in the end, and papermaking has become cooking without rice. Later, the state changed its policy. In the 1980s, the state encouraged the forestry department to directly afforest and paper, so it was not necessary to divide the large profit of paper making and the demand for electrical insulation and flame retardant materials in the power and electrical industry to the Ministry of light industry; The Ministry of light industry can also directly invest in afforestation. The copolymer of PHB and poly (3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) has mobilized the enthusiasm of the two countries and relaxed policies to go their own way

however, this arrangement did not work. China's paper consumption has soared, and papermaking is still dominated by straw pulp, while wood pulp depends on imports

In the 1990s, it was suggested to go to Thailand and Malaysia to solve the problem of wood pulp production, and prepare to take us $1billion for afforestation, which is the third stage of foreign forest production and foreign paper production. However, China's land and labor are probably the cheapest in the world. It may be more difficult to do things that cannot be completed in China abroad, and in the end, it will be fruitless

the story of forestation, papermaking and foreign forestry has been unsolved for half a century. On the other hand, the record of imported pulp in China has soared and cannot be reversed. It is really not worth spending 100 billion yuan on paper. The Republic can't bear this burden, so the "head of the Central Committee" issued a long instruction: we should take pulp raw materials as a major event and hurry up our own forestry science and technology development work, which is really incisive, and points out that the solution to China's papermaking problem should start with China's own forestry scientific research, take the road of breeding improved varieties and self-reliance, which is the countermeasure

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